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Who Is this Book For?

This book is for people who are interested in how Scheme works, or people who are interested in Scheme in terms of programming language design--as well as people who are just interested in using Scheme.

There's not much conflict between these goals, since one of the best ways to learn Scheme--and important principles of language design--is to see how to implement Scheme, in Scheme. We'll illustrate the power of Scheme by showing a couple of simple interpreters for subsets of Scheme, and a simple compiler. A compiler for Scheme can be surprisingly simple and understandable.

This approach is a fairly traditional one, pioneered by Abelson and Sussman in Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs, which is a widely used and excellent introductory programming text. The approach has been followed, more or less, in several other introductory books on Scheme programming. Most of those books, though, are for beginning programmers. While we think Scheme is a great first language, there are many people out there who've had to suffer through C or Pascal or some other traditional language, and don't want to wade through an introductory programming book just to learn Scheme.

Our approach is different from most of the current books on Scheme, in several ways.

For one thing, as we mentioned before, this book can be converted to several hypertext formats for easy on-line browsing.

Rather than discussing them in great detail, we will breeze through basic programming ideas--for example, we assume you have some idea what a variable is, and what recursion is.

We take a more concrete approach than many Scheme writers do, because we've found many students find it easier to understand. Every now and then we'll dip below the language level, and tell you how most actual implementations of the language work. We find that this concreteness helps disambiguate things in many students' minds--as well as in our own.

We do not start from a functional programming perspective that pretends that Scheme executes by rewriting expressions. (If that doesn't mean anything to you, definitely don't worry about it!)

We take Scheme to be a special case of a weakly object-oriented procedural language. By weakly object oriented, we don't mean that it's object-oriented in the sense of having inheritance and so on--though several extended versions of Scheme do. We just mean that the values in the language are data objects (records, etc.) whose identities may be significant--that is, you can compare pointers to two objects to see whether they are the very same object, not just and whether they have the same state--and objects may have mutable (changeable) state. (This view is developed further in RScheme, which is a fully object-oriented language that happens also to be Scheme.)

Some people may not like this approach, since we start talking about state and assignment very early. It is generally considered bad style in Scheme to use assignments freely, and good style to write mostly "functional" or "applicative" programs. While we agree that mostly-functional programming is usually the right thing for Scheme, our intent is to make the semantics of the language clear early on, and to make it clear to new Schemers that Scheme is a fairly normal programming language, even if it is unusually clean and expressive. Our experience in teaching Scheme has convinced us that many people benefit from an early exposure to the use of assignment; it clarifies fundamental issues about variables and variable binding. Style is discussed later, when alternatives are clearer.

If you've ever tried to learn Lisp or Scheme before, but not gotten very far, this book may be for you. Many people take to Lisp or Scheme like ducks to water. Some people don't, however, and we think that's often because of the way that the material is presented--there's nothing hard about learning Lisp or Scheme. In this book, we try to explain things a little differently than they're usually explained, to avoid the problems that some people have learning from most of the existing books. The concreteness of the explanations here may help overcome the unfamiliarity of these languages. Scheme is really just a normal programming language, but one with powerful features that can be used in special ways, too.

If you're a programming language designer, but not fluent in Scheme or Lisp, this book may help clarify what these languages are all about. It's our belief that there has been a damaging split between the Lisp world and the "conventional" imperative programming language world, largely due to the different vocabularies of the different communities. Recent developments in Scheme have not been widely appreciated by designers of other languages. (This theme will be developed further in the other documents in this series.) Even old features of Lisp, such as macros, have not been properly understood by language designers in general, and their problems have been substantially solved in Scheme.

If you're a programming language implementor, or teaching programming language implementation, this book may be of use. (one of the authors uses it in a course on languages and implementation.) We'll present interpreters and a compiler for Scheme. Scheme is an excellent vehicle for teaching principles of language implementation, because its syntax is simple, and there is a straightforward evolution from simple interpreters to more complex ones, and another straightforward move from a simple interpreter to a compiler. This simplicity supports teaching the principles of language implementation with a minimum of irrelevant detail. If you like a different, more formal, presentation of Scheme in this way, you should read the book Lisp In Small Pieces by Christian Quiennec.

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